If the trial at the Tesco Extra branch in Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham is successful, the scheme could be rolled out to other stores, according to a report in the Sun newspaper.
The barriers have been put up because shoplifting is a problem at night when fewer staff are working.
They can be set to retract automatically as customers approach or require staff with a key card to open them.
A supermarket source told the Sun: “It is quite an extreme method to cut down on theft but a very effective one.
“They are a bleak sign of the times but will save Tesco a fortune.”
Tesco shares were 1.11% lower at 266.35p in midday trade.